| Authors||G. Zincone, T. Caponio|
|Title||The multilevel governance of migration. State of the art report Cluster|
|Title series||Working paper|
|Institute/dept.||FIERI - Forum Internazionale ed Europeo di Ricerche sull'Immigrazione|
|Keywords||Policies local/national/international; Cities/Countries|
|Abstract||The study of the processes of policy-making for immigration and immigrant incorporation should be considered as a ‘young’ research field, primarily because most of the research in this area consists of ‘grey literature’ (i.e., Ph.D. dissertations and research reports).
Policy-making seems to represent a sort of fourth generation research topic. First generation studies were essentially concerned with the demographic composition and evolution of migration flows into and immigrant stocks within European countries. Second generation research has focused primarily on immigrants’ economic integration and their social behaviours. The third generation has dealt mainly with integration policies and political participation. Lastly, the fourth generation has tackled the problem of understanding how immigrant and immigration policies are decided upon and carried out. Even more recently, a sort of fourth and a half generation type of studies has emerged. This new generation is starting to carry out research on the issue of the multilevel governance of immigrants and immigration.
In order to better understand multilevel governance we investigate decision-making processes by adopting an analytical perspective that focuses on the following dimensions: 1) the various levels of government at which decisions are made (i.e., central State, Regions/Landers/Cantons/federated states; provinces and more frequently – as we shall see below – municipal administrations), and the relations between these different levels of government1, either more top-down or more bottom-up oriented; and 2) not just formal decision-making processes, but also semi-formal and informal ones, (i.e., bottom-up pressures arising from civil society2). Examples of these semi- and informal processes are the roles played by unions, NGOs, immigrant associations, social movements, experts, media etc. A bottom-up orientation includes two types of perspectives: a) inputs from lower levels to upper levels and b) inputs from civil society to the public arena. This kind of analysis began in the late 1980s, spurred on by changes in public decision-making mechanisms—processes of power fragmentation and devolution to both lower levels of governments and civil society organisations (Pierre 2000, Scharpf 1993). This perspective looks to both changing patterns of public-private (and civil society) relations, and to the redefinition of traditional hierarchical governing structures (Pierre 2000).
|Download paper|| document/39847|
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